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# Punjab University BA Syllabus

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## Paper Statistics 200 Marks- Syllabus, Page -1

**(Outlines of Test)**

**Paper – A:** 75 Marks

**Paper – B:** 75

**Paper – C: (Pratical)** 50

** Total Marks:** 200

**(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)**

**Paper – A**

Candidates are required to attempt at least two questions from each Section

**Section – I **

__DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS (weight 2/10)__

Meaning of Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Population and sample. Types of variables, Measurement Scales, Sources of Statistical data in Pakistan. Description of data by frequency tables and graphs. Stem and Leaf Plots and Box Plots. Measures of Central Tendency A.M, H.M, G.M Mode, Median, Quantities, Properties of Mean with Proofs. Weighted Arithmetic Mean. Empirical Relation between Mean, Median and Mode. Relative Merits and Demerits of various averages. Measures of Dispersion: Absolute and Relative Measures, Range, Semi-Inter Quartile Range, Mean Deviation, Coefficient of Quartile Deviations, Properties of variance and Standard Deviation with Proofs. Standardized Variables. Moments, moment ratios, sheppards Correction, Kurtosis and skewness.

__INDEX NUMBERS AND TIME SERIES (Weight 2/10)__

- Construction and application of wholesale price Index numbers. Fixed and chain base methods. Weighted Index Numbers (Lasperyre’s Passche’s Fisher’s Ideal and Marshall-Edgeworth Indices). Tests for consistency of Index Numbers Construction of Consumer Price Index Numbers. Sensitive Price Indicator.
- Time Series: Components of a time series. Analysis of time series, Measurement of secular trend and seasonal variations by various methods. Deseasonalization of data.

__SIMPLE REGRESSION AND CORRELATION (Weight 1/10)__

Logic of regression and correlation. Scatter diagram, Simple linear regression model, least square estimators and their properties, standards error of estimate, Meaning and application of linear correlation coefficient. Properties of correlation coefficient correlation for bi-variable frequency distribution. Meaning derivation and application of Rank Correlation, Tied ranks.

**Section – II**

__PROBABILITY (Weight 2/10)__

Random experiments, Sample Space and events, Counting Techniques, Definitions and axioms of probability. Basic Laws of Probability. Independence of events. Bayes Theorem (proof not required) and its application.

__DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE AND DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS (Weight 2/10)__

Random variable, Distribution Function, Discrete random variable. Probability distribution of discrete random variable. Joint Distribution of two discrete random variables, marginal and conditional distribution, mathematical expectation and it properties, mean, variance and moments. Concept of m.g.f and its properties. Uniform Bernoulli, Binomial, Hyper geometric and poisson distribution, means, variance and shape of these distributions and their properties. Application of these distributions with examples from various fields, Multinomial distribution (only application)

__CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLE AND CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS (Weight 1/10)__

Continuous random variables. Probability Distribution of a single continuous random variable, probability density function and distribution function. Mean, variance and moments of continuous random variables. Uniform and Normal Distributions. Means, Variance and shape of these distribution and their properties. Application of these distributions. Normal approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distribution (only application). Fitting of Normal Distribution by area method. (continued to page 2)