Change in Time and Adverbs in Indirect Speech – Rules

To convert direct speech into indirect speech some changes are made in the sentence. These changes include changes in time (e.g.,yesterday, today, tomorrow) and adverbs (e.g., now, ago, this, here). The words expressing time and adverbs are changed according to the following rules. See these rules and the examples here to understand how these changes are made.

Today changes into that day or the same day.
Tomorrow changes into the next day..
Yesterday changes into the day before or the previous day..

This week/month/year into that or the same week/month/year.
Last week/month/year into the previous week/month/year
Next week/month/year into the following week/month/year.

Now into then.
This into that.
Here into there.
Ago into before.
Hence into thence.


Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
She said, "I am busy today".
She said that she was busy that day.
He said, "I will go to London tomorrow".
He said that he would go to London the next day.
She said, "I saw a joker yesterday".
She said that she had seen a joker the previous day.
They said, "We have to finish our work this week".
They said that they had to finish their work that week.
They said, "We are expecting heavy rains this month".
She said that they were expecting heaving rains that month.
He said, "I met my friend last week.
He said that he had met his friend the previous week.
They said, "We earned a lot of money last month".
They said that they had earned a lot of money the previous month.
She said, "I completed my research last year".
She said that she had completed her research the previous year.
He said, "I will buy a camera next week".
He said that he would buy a camera the following week.
He said, "I will start a new job next month".
He said that he would start a new job the following month.
She said, "I need your help now".
She said that she needed my help then.
The patient said, "I am feeling good now".
The patient said that he was feeling good then.
He said, "I like this car".
He said that he liked that car.
She said, "I should study this book".
She said that she should study that book.
He said, "the kids are playing here".
He said that the kids were playing there.
They said, "We saw a snake here".
They said that they had seen a snake there.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said to me, "You look good today".
He said to me that I looked good that day".
She said, "I will buy a cup tomorrow".
She said that she would buy a cup the next day.
She said, "I passed my exam last month".
She said that she had passed her exam the previous month.
They said, "We will get our salary next month".
They said that they would get their salary the following month.