Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense is used to express an action that has been completed or has occurred recently. This tense expresses the sense of completion of an action in recent time.

Since the action has already been done, it can be said that it has occurred at some point in the past, but these actions have generally occurred in the recent past (not a very long time ago). For instance, someone asks you where is your brother? Suppose your brother is in his school. You may reply, ‘He has gone to school’. This is because the action of going to school has been done by your brother on the same day.

This tense may express any action which has occurred in the same day, weak, month or sometimes even a year but when it is intended to give a sense that something has been done in the recent past or that its description is still related to recent time. For instance, a person says, ‘I have passed the exam’. This person may have passed the exam a month ago but if he wants to express about it in a way that its description is still somewhat applicable to the recent time, he may use the present perfect tense.

Structure of Sentence:

Main verb: 3rd form of verb (Past participle)
Helping verbs: Has / Have

If the subject of the sentence is ‘he, she, it, or a singular noun, then ‘has’ is used.
If the subject is ‘I, we, you, they or a plural noun’, then ‘have’ is used.


 Subject + helping verb + main verb + object.
 Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb + object.

He has finished the work.
She has written a letter.
They have spent all the money.
He has succeeded in his mission.
She has broken the cup.
They have gone to school.
He has recovered from his illness.
She has won a prize.
They have bought a camera.
We have kept our books in the cupboard.
He has received my letter.
I have given him a gift.
He has started a business.
We have made a beautiful painting.
The guests have arrived.
I have helped him.
The have participated in the competition.
You have done a nice job.
The witness has spoken the truth.


In negative sentence, the word ‘not’ is added after ‘has’ or ‘have’.

 Subject + helping verb + not + main verb + object.
 Subject + has/have + not + 3rd form of verb + object.

He has not completed his work.
She has not eaten the meal.
He has not stolen my money.
I have not broken the cup.
He has not passed the exam.
She has not bought a new car.
They have not finished their task.
I have not seen him.
She has not gone to America.
He has not reached his home.
They have not spent all the money.
You have not answered correctly.


The question sentence starts with ‘has’ or ‘have’.

 Helping verb + subject + main verb + object.
 Has/have + subject + 3rd form of verb + object.

Has he finished his work?
Has he succeeded in his mission?
Has she brought her camera with her?
Have they earned a lot of money?
Have they celebrated your birthday?
Have the kids eaten their food?
Have we won a prize?

Has he helped you?
Has she gone to school?
Has he sent you an email?
Have they bought a new computer?
Have you prepared yourself for the exam?
Have they started a new business?
Have you ever thought about it?
Has this ever happened to you?
Has he gone to school?